Alderson, J. C. (1984). Reading in a foreign language: A reading problem or a language problem? In J. C. Alderson & A. H. Urquhart (Eds.), Reading in a foreign language (pp. 1-27). London: Longman.

Anderson, R. C., & Pearson, P. D. (1984). A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading comprehension. In P. D. Pearson, R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, & P. Mosenthal (Eds.), The handbook of reading research (pp. 255-292). New York: Longman.

Anderson, N. J. (1991). Individual differences in strategy use in second language reading and testing. The Modern Language Journal, 75(4), 460-472.

Ausubel, L. J. (1960). The use of advance organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful verbal material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 267-272.

Bernhardt, E. B. (1991). Reading development in a second language: Theoretical, empirical, and classroom perspectives. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corp.

Bernhardt, E. B., & Kamil, M. L. (1995). Interpreting relationships between L1 and L2 reading: Consolidating the Linguistic Threshold and the Linguistic Interdependence Hypotheses. Applied Linguistics, 16(1), 15-34.

Boswell, D. L., & Picket, J. A. (1991). A study of the internal consistency and factor structure of the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire. Journal of Mental Imagery, 15, 33-36.

Brown, J. I., Bennett, J. M., & Hanna, G. (1981). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test. Chicago: The Riverside Publishing Company.

Carr, T., & Levy, B. (1990). Reading and its development: Component skills approaches. San Diego: Academic Press.

Carrell, P. L. (1984a). The effects of rhetorical organization on ESL readers. TESOL Quarterly, 18, 441-470.

Carrell, P. L. (1984b). Evidence of a formal schema in second language comprehension. Language Learning, 34, 87-113.

Carrell, P. L. (1985). Facilitating ESL reading by teaching text structure. TESOL Quarterly, 19(4), 727-752.

Carrell, P. L. (1987). Content and formal schemata in ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 21(3), 461-481.

Carrell, P. L. (1988). Text-boundedness and schema interference. In P. L. Carrell, J. Devine, & D. E. Eskey (Eds.), Interactive approaches to second language reading, (pp. 101-113). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Carrell, P. L., & Eisterhold, J. (1983). Schema theory and ESL reading pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 553-575.

Chun, D. M., & Plass, J. L. (1996a). Effects of multimedia annotations on vocabulary acquisition. Modern Language Journal, 80, 183-198.

Chun, D. M., & Plass, J. L. (1996b). Facilitating reading comprehension with multimedia. System, 24(4), 503-519.

Clark, R. E. (1983). Reconsidering research on learning from media. Review of Educational Research, 53, 445-459.

Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(2), 21-30.

Clark, J. M., & Paivio, A. (1991). Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review, 3, 149-210.

Clark, R. E., & Salomon, G. (1986). Media in teaching. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (Vol. 3, pp. 464-478). New York, NY: Macmillan.

Clement, C. A., & Gentner, D. (1991). Systematicity as a selection constraint in analogical mapping. Cognitive Science, 15, 89-132.

Coady, J. (1979). A psycholinguistic model of the ESL reader. In R. Mackay, B. Barkman, & R. R. Jordan (Eds.), Reading in a second language (pp. 5-12).Rowley, MA: Newbury House.


Coady, J. (1993). Research on ESL/EFL vocabulary acquisition: Putting it in context. In T. Huckin, M. Haynes, & J. Coady (Eds.), Second language reading and vocabulary learning, (pp. 3-23). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.

Cohen, A. D. (1987). The use of verbal and imagery mnemonics in second-language vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 9(1), 43-61.

Corbett, S. S., & Smith, F. (1984). Identifying student learning styles: Proceed with caution! The Modern Language Journal, 68, 212-221.

Davis, J. N., & Bistodeau, L. (1993). How do L1 and L2 reading differ? Evidence from think aloud protocols. The Modern Language Journal, 77(4), 459-472.

de Beaugrande, R. (1982). General constraints on process models of language comprehension. In J.-F. L. Ny & W. Kintsch (Eds.), Language and comprehension (pp. 179-192). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Denis, M. (1982). Imaging while reading text: A study of individual differences. Memory & Cognition, 10(6), 540-545.

Edwards, J. E., & Wilkins, W. (1981). Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire: Relationship with imagery and verbal-visual ability. Journal of Mental Imagery, 5, 137-142.

Ehrman, M. E., & Oxford, R. L. (1989). Effects of sex differences, career choice, and psychological type on adult language learning strategies. The Modern Language Journal, 73, 1-13.

Ehrman, M., & Oxford, R. (1990). Adult language learning styles and strategies in an intensive training setting. The Modern Language Journal, 74(3), 311-327.

Ekstrom, R. B., French, J. W., & Harman, H. H. (1976). Manual for kit of factor-referenced cognitive tests. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Gardner, R. C., Day, J. B., & MacIntyre, P. D. (1992). Integrative motivation, induced anxiety, and language learning in a controlled environment. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 197-214.

Gentner, D. (1983). Structure-mapping: A theoretical framework for analogy. Cognitive Science, 7, 155-170.

Goodman, K. (1967). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. Journal of the Reading Specialist, 6, 126-135.

Goodman, K. (1985). Unity in reading. In H. Singer & R. Ruddell (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (pp. 813-840). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Grabe, W. (1991). Current developments in second language reading research. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3), 375-406.

Hanley, J. E. B., Herron, C. A., & Cole, S. P. (1995). Using video as an advance organizer to a written passage in the FLES classroom. Modern Language Journal, 79(1), 57-66.

Harrington, M., & Sawyer, M. (1992). L2 working memory capacity and L2 reading skill. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 25-38.

Horiba, Y. (1996). Comprehension processes in L2 reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18(4), 433-473.

Jamieson, J. (1992). The cognitive styles of reflection/impulsivity and field independence/dependence and ESL success. The Modern Language Journal, 76(4), 491-501.

Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983). Mental Models. Towards a cognitive science of language, inference, and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Jonassen, D. H., & Grabowski, B. L. (1993). Handbook of individual differences, learning, and instruction. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Just, M., & Carpenter, P. (1980). A theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension. Psychological Review, 4, 329-354.

Just, M., & Carpenter, P. (1987). The psychology of reading and language comprehension. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.


Keefe, J. W. (1989). Learning style profile handbook. II. Accommodating perceptual, study and instructional preferences. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.

Kellogg, G. S., & Howe, M. J. A. (1971). Using words and pictures in foreign language learning. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 17, 87-94.

Kern, R. G. (1989). Second language reading strategy instruction: Its effects on comprehension and word inference ability. The Modern Language Journal, 73, 135-149.

Kirby, J. R. (1993). Collaborative and competitive effects of verbal and spatial processes. Learning and Instruction, 3, 201-214.

Kirby, J. R., Moore, P. J., & Schofield, N. J. (1988). Verbal and visual learning styles. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 13, 169-184.

Knight, S. (1994). Dictionary use while reading: The effects on comprehension and vocabulary acquisition for students of different verbal abilities.The Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 285-299.

Koda, K. (1992). The effects of lower-level processing skills in FL reading performance: Implications for instruction. The Modern Language Journal, 76(4), 502-512.

Koda, K. (1993). Transferred L1 strategies and L2 syntactic structure in L2 sentence comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 77, 490-500.

Kozma, R. B. (1991). Learning with media. Review of Educational Research, 61, 179-211.

Laufer, B., & Sim, D. (1985). Measuring and explaining the reading threshold needed for English for academic purposes texts. Foreign Language Annals, 18, 405-411.

Leow, R. P. (1995). Modality and intake in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17, 79-89.

Leutner, D. (1992). Adaptive Lehrsysteme. Instruktionspsychologische Grundlagen und experimentelle Analysen. Weinheim: PVU.

Leutner, D., & Plass, J. L. (1997). Measuring learning styles with questionnaires versus direct observation of preferential choice behavior in authentic learning situations: The visualizer/verbalizer behavior observation scale (VV-BOS). Manuscript submitted for publication.

Levie, W. H., & Lentz, R. (1982). Effects of text illustrations: A review of research. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 30, 195-232.

Mayer, R. E. (1984). Aids to text comprehension. Educational Psychologist, 19, 30-42.

Mayer, R. E. (1993). Comprehension of Graphics in texts: An overview. Learning and Instruction, 3, 239-245.

Mayer, R. E. (1997). Multimedia learning: Are we asking the right questions? Educational Psychologist, 32(1), 1-19.

Mayer, R. E., & Anderson, R. B. (1991). Animations need narrations: An experimental test of a dual-coding hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 484-490.

Mayer, R. E., & Gallini, J. K. (1990). When is an illustration worth ten thousand words? Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 715-726.

Mayer, R. E., & Sims, V. K. (1994). For whom is a picture worth a thousand words? Extensions of a dual-coding theory of multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 389-401.

Mayer, R. E., Steinhoff, K., Bower, G., & Mars, R. (1995). A generative theory of textbook design: Using annotated illustrations to foster meaningful learning of science text. Educational Technology Research and Development, 43, 31-44.

McKeown, M., & Curtis, M. (1987). The nature of vocabulary acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Oller, J. (1996). Towards a theory of technologically assisted language learning/instruction. CALICO Journal, 13(4), 19-43.

Omaggio, A. C. (1979). Pictures and second language comprehension: Do they help? Foreign Language Annals, 12, 107-116.


Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representation: A dual-coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.

Parrott, C. A. (1986). Validation report of the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire. Journal of Mental Imagery, 10, 39-42.

Peek, J. (1993). Increasing picture effects in learning from illustrated text. Learning and Instruction, 3, 227-238.

Plass, J. L., Chun, D. M., Mayer, R. E., & Leutner, D. (1997). Supporting visual and verbal learning preferences in a second Language Multimedia Learning Environment. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Raymond, P. M. (1993). The effects of structure strategy training on the recall of expository prose for university students reading French as a second language. The Modern Language Journal, 77(4), 445-458.

Rayner, K., & Pollatsek, A. (1989). The psychology of reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Reid, J. M. (1987). The learning style preferences of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 87-111.

Resnick, L. B. (1982). Syntax and semantics in learning to subtract. In T. P. Carpenter, J. M. Moser, & T. A. Romberg (Eds.), Addition and subtraction: A cognitive perspective. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Ross, S. M. (1994). Delivery trucks or groceries? More food for thought on whether media (will, may, can't) influence learning: Introduction to special issue. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(2), 5-6.

Rumelhart, D. (1977). Toward an interactive model of reading. In S. Dornic (Ed.), Attention and performance IV (pp. 573-603). New York: Academic Press.

Salomon, G. (1972). Heuristic models for the generation of aptitude-treatment interaction hypotheses. Review of Educational Research, 42, 237-343.

Salomon, G. (1983). The different investment of mental effort in learning from different sources. Educational Psychologist, 18(1), 42-50.

Salomon, G. (1989). Learning from text and pictures: Reflections on a meta-level. In H. Mandl, J.R. Levin (Eds.), Knowledge acquisition from text and pictures (pp. 73-81). North-Holland: Elsevier.

Samuels, J., & Kamil, M. (1984). Models of the reading process. In P. D. Pearson, R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, & P. Mosenthal (Eds.), The handbook of reading research (pp. 185-224). New York: Longman.

Schnotz, W. (1993). On the relation between dual coding and mental models in graphics comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 3, 247-249.

Schnotz, W., & Grzondziel, H. (1996). Knowledge acquisition with static and animated pictures in computer-based learning. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in New York, April 8-12, 1996.

Schofield, N. J., & Kirby, J. R. (1994). Position location and topographical maps: Effects of task factors, training, and strategies. Cognition and Instruction, 12(1), 35-47.

Secules, T., Herron, C., & Tomasello, M. (1992). The effect of video context on foreign language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 76(4), 480-490.

Silberstein, S. (1987). Let's take another look at reading: Twenty-five years of reading instruction. English Teaching Forum, 25, 28-35.

Skehan, P. (1991). Individual differences in second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13(2), 275-298.

Smith, F. (1971). Understanding reading. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Smith, F. (1979). Reading without nonsense. New York: Teachers College Press.

Smith, F. (1982). Understanding reading. (3rd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.


Stanovich, K. (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 32-71.

Swaffar, J., Arens, K., & Byrnes, H. (1991). Reading for meaning: An integrated approach to language learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Taillefer, G. F. (1996). L2 reading ability: Further insight into the Short-circuit Hypothesis. The Modern Language Journal, 80(4), 461-477.

Tang, G. (1992). The effect of graphic representation of knowledge structures on ESL reading comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 177-195.

Teichert, H. U. (1996). A comparative study using illustrations, brainstorming, and questions as advance organizers in intermediate college German conversation classes. The Modern Language Journal, 80(4), 509-517.

van Dijk, T., & Kintsch, W. (1983). Strategies of discourse comprehension. New York: Academic Press.

Vosniadou, S., & Ortony, A. (1989). Similarity and analogical reasoning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Williams, E., & Moran, C. (1989). Reading in a foreign language at intermediate and advanced levels with particular reference to English. Language Teaching, 22, 217-228.

Wolf, D. F. (1993). A comparison of assessment tasks used to measure FL reading comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 77(4), 473-489.


Return to the text