Example 1. Negotiation of meaning through oral interaction which occured while ESL learners were working on tasks assigned by a researcher (Pica, 1994)

Exchange A
NS: I have a piece of toast with a small pat of butter    
NNS: hm hmm    
NS: and above the plate    
NNS: what is buvdaplate?    
NS: above NNS: above the plate
NS: yeah not up as if you are sitting at the table it would be farther away from you than the plate    
NNS: hm hmm    
(discussed in Pica, 1994, p. 512)


Exchange B
NS: it's a rectangular bench
NNS: rectangular?
NS: yeah it's in the shape of a rectangle with um you know a rectangle has two long sides and two short sides
NNS: rectangle?
NS: re-rectangle it's it's like a square except you flatten it out
NNS: square except
NS: uh a rectangle is a square
NNS: uhuh
NS: except a square has four equal sides
NNS: yes
NS: a rectangle has two sides that are much longer and two sides that are much shorter
(discussed in Pica, 1994, p. 512)


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