Guidelines for Articles Reporting on Quantitative Research

The LLT editors recommend that authors of manuscripts based on quantitative research consider the general guidelines outlined in Chapter 1 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition. 2009. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, pp. 9-20).

In particular, a quantitative research report should generally include the following sections:

An Introduction that

  • states the problem to be investigated
  • contextualizes the research by describing the underlying theoretical framework and reviewing previous studies
  • defines the variables and research hypotheses

A Method Section that describes

  • the participants (e.g., demographics, selection criteria, and group assignment)
  • the materials (e.g., task[s], equipment, instruments, including a discussion of their validity and reliability, if appropriate)
  • the procedures employed in the study such as treatment(s)

A Results Section that includes

  • graphs and tables that help to present and explain the results
  • descriptive and inferential statistics used to analyze the data, including the following:
  • name of the statistic used and in the case of an uncommon statistical procedure, a reference to a discussion of the procedure
  • statistical significance of the results obtained
  • measures of effect sizes
  • how all necessary assumptions were met

A Discussion Section that includes

  • an interpretation of the results
  • an explanation of the results, including alternative explanations when appropriate
  • a statement relating the results obtained in the study to original hypotheses
  • theoretical implications
  • limitations of the study

A Conclusion that includes

  • general implications of the study
  • suggestions for further research


Appendices of instrument(s) used

Guidelines for Articles Reporting on Qualitative Research

The LLT editors recommend that authors of manuscripts based on qualitative research generally include the following sections in their articles:

  • Statement of the research question examined in the study.
  • Description of the theoretical framework(s) underlying the research question.
  • Description of the methodological tradition in which the study was conducted.
  • Relationship between the study and previous work in the area under investigation.
  • Detailed description of the participants and research site.
  • Detailed description of data collection and analysis procedures.
  • Report of findings.
  • Limitations of the study.
  • Implication(s) of the study.


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